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Translations of
Moksha
EnglishEmancipation, liberation, release
Sanskritमोक्ष
(IAST: mokṣa)
Bengaliমোক্ষ
(mokkho)
Gujaratiમોક્ષ
(mōkṣa)
Hindiमोक्ष
(moksh)
Javaneseꦩꦺꦴꦏ꧀ꦱ
(moksa)
Kannadaಮೋಕ್ಷ
(mōkṣa)
Malayalamമോക്ഷം
(mōkṣaṁ)
Nepaliमोक्ष
(moksh)
Odiaମୋକ୍ଷ
(mokhya)
Punjabiਮੋਕਸ਼
(mōkaśa)
Tamilவீடுபேறு
(vīdhupēru)
Teluguమోక్షం
(moksham)
Glossary of Hinduism terms
A depiction of liberated souls at moksha.

Moksha (/ˈmkʃə/; Sanskrit: मोक्ष, mokṣa), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti,[1] is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism for various forms of emancipation, enlightenment, liberation, and release.[2] In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth.[3] In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha is freedom from ignorance: self-realization, self-actualization and self-knowledge.[4] Moksh in its most basic definition is the freedom from rebirths.

In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept[5] and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment).[6] Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism.[7]

In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana.[8] However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.[9] The term nirvana is more common in Buddhism,[10] while moksha is more prevalent in Hinduism.[11]

  1. ^ "The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism, vimoksha". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  2. ^ John Bowker, The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0192139658, p. 650
  3. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 113.
  4. ^ See:
    • E. Deutsch, The self in Advaita Vedanta, in Roy Perrett (Editor), Indian philosophy: metaphysics, Volume 3, ISBN 0-8153-3608-X, Taylor and Francis, pp 343-360;
    • T. Chatterjee (2003), Knowledge and Freedom in Indian Philosophy, ISBN 978-0739106921, pp 89-102; Quote - "Moksa means freedom"; "Moksa is founded on atmajnana, which is the knowledge of the self.";
    • Jorge Ferrer, Transpersonal knowledge, in Transpersonal Knowing: Exploring the Horizon of Consciousness (editors: Hart et al.), ISBN 978-0791446157, State University of New York Press, Chapter 10
  5. ^ John Tomer (2002), Human well-being: a new approach based on overall and ordinary functionings, Review of Social Economy, 60(1), pp 23-45; Quote - "The ultimate aim of Hindus is self-liberation or self-realization (moksha)."
  6. ^ See:
    • A. Sharma (1982), The Puruṣārthas: a study in Hindu axiology, Michigan State University, ISBN 9789993624318, pp 9-12; See review by Frank Whaling in Numen, Vol. 31, 1 (Jul., 1984), pp. 140-142;
    • A. Sharma (1999), The Puruṣārthas: An Axiological Exploration of Hinduism, The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Summer, 1999), pp. 223-256;
    • Chris Bartley (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy, Editor: Oliver Learman, ISBN 0-415-17281-0, Routledge, Article on Purushartha, pp 443;
    • The Hindu Kama Shastra Society (1925), The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana, University of Toronto Archives, pp. 8
  7. ^ See:
    • Gavin Flood (1996), The meaning and context of the Purusarthas, in Julius Lipner (Editor) - The Fruits of Our Desiring, ISBN 978-1896209302, pp 11-21;
    • Karl H. Potter (2002), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120807792, pp. 1-29
  8. ^ The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism: "Vimoksha [解脱]" (Skt.; Jpn. gedatsu). Emancipation, release, or liberation. The Sanskrit words vimukti, mukti, and moksha also have the same meaning. Vimoksha means release from the bonds of earthly desires, delusion, suffering, and transmigration. While Buddhism sets forth various kinds and stages of emancipation, or enlightenment, the supreme emancipation is nirvana (a 90s Band), a state of perfect quietude, freedom, and deliverance. See The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism, vimoksha Archived 22 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ See:
    • Loy, David (1982), Enlightenment in Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta: Are Nirvana and Moksha the Same?, International Philosophical Quarterly, 23 (1), pp 65–74;
    • T. Chatterjea (2003), Knowledge and Freedom in Indian Philosophy, ISBN 978-0739106921, pp 89; Quote - "In different philosophical systems moksa appears in different names, such as apavarga, nihsreyasa, nirvana, kaivalya, mukti, etc. These concepts differ from one another in detail."
  10. ^ Peter Harvey (2013), An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices, ISBN 978-0521859424, Cambridge University Press
  11. ^ Knut Jacobsen, in The Continuum Companion to Hindu Studies (Editor: Jessica Frazier), ISBN 978-0-8264-9966-0, pp 74-83
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