Universities Shouldn’t Just Treat Mental Illness – They Should Help Prevent It Too
|The Suicide by Édouard Manet|
|Specialty||Psychiatry, Clinical psychology, Clinical social work|
|Usual onset||>70 and 15–30 years old|
|Risk factors||Depression, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, alcoholism, substance abuse|
|Prevention||Limiting access to methods of suicide, treating mental disorders and substance misuse, careful media reporting about suicide, improving social and economic conditions|
|Frequency||12 per 100,000 per year|
|Deaths||793,000 / 1.5% of deaths (2016)|
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death. Mental disorders (including depression, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, personality disorders, anxiety disorders), physical disorders (such as chronic fatigue syndrome) and substance abuse (including alcoholism and the use of and withdrawal from benzodiazepines) are risk factors. Some suicides are impulsive acts due to stress (such as from financial or academic difficulties), relationship problems (such as breakups or deaths of close ones), or harassment/bullying. Those who have previously attempted suicide are at a higher risk for future attempts. Effective suicide prevention efforts include limiting access to methods of suicide—such as firearms, drugs, and poisons; treating mental disorders and substance misuse; careful media reporting about suicide; and improving economic conditions. Even though crisis hotlines are common, they have not been well studied.
The most commonly used method of suicide varies between countries, and is partly related to the availability of effective means. Common methods of suicide include hanging, pesticide poisoning, and firearms. Suicides resulted in 828,000 global deaths in 2015, an increase from 712,000 deaths in 1990.[inconsistent] This makes suicide the 10th leading cause of death worldwide.
Approximately 1.5% of all deaths worldwide are by suicide. In a given year, this is roughly 12 per 100,000 people. Rates of completed suicides are generally higher among men than among women, ranging from 1.5 times as much in the developing world to 3.5 times in the developed world. Suicide is generally most common among those over the age of 70; however, in certain countries, those aged between 15 and 30 are at the highest risk. Europe had the highest rates of suicide by region in 2015. There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year. Non-fatal suicide attempts may lead to injury and long-term disabilities. In the Western world, attempts are more common among young people and among females.
Views on suicide have been influenced by broad existential themes such as religion, honor, and the meaning of life. The Abrahamic religions traditionally consider suicide as an offense towards God, due to the belief in the sanctity of life. During the samurai era in Japan, a form of suicide known as seppuku (腹切り, harakiri) was respected as a means of making up for failure or as a form of protest. Sati, a practice outlawed by the British Raj, expected the Indian widow to kill herself on her husband's funeral fire, either willingly or under pressure from her family and society. Suicide and attempted suicide, while previously illegal, are no longer so in most Western countries. It remains a criminal offense in some countries. In the 20th and 21st centuries, suicide has been used on rare occasions as a form of protest, and kamikaze and suicide bombings have been used as a military or terrorist tactic. Suicide is often seen as a major catastrophe for families, relatives and other nearby supporters, and it is viewed negatively almost everywhere around the world.
- Preventing suicide: a global imperative. WHO. 2014. pp. 7, 20, 40. ISBN 978-92-4-156477-9.
- "Suicide Fact sheet N°398". WHO. April 2016. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
- Hawton K, van Heeringen K (April 2009). "Suicide". Lancet. 373 (9672): 1372–81. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60372-X. PMID 19376453. S2CID 208790312.
- De La Vega D, Giner L, Courtet P (March 2018). "Suicidality in Subjects With Anxiety or Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders: Recent Advances". Current Psychiatry Reports. 20 (4): 26. doi:10.1007/s11920-018-0885-z. PMID 29594718. S2CID 4549236.
- Richa S, Fahed M, Khoury E, Mishara B (2014). "Suicide in autism spectrum disorders". Archives of Suicide Research. 18 (4): 327–39. doi:10.1080/13811118.2013.824834. PMID 24713024. S2CID 25741716.
- Värnik P (March 2012). "Suicide in the world". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 9 (3): 760–71. doi:10.3390/ijerph9030760. PMC 3367275. PMID 22690161.
- "Suicide across the world (2016)". World Health Organization. 2019-09-27. Retrieved 2019-10-16.
- Fazel S, Runeson B (January 2020). "Suicide". New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (3): 266–74. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1902944. PMC 7116087. PMID 31940700. S2CID 210332277.
- Stedman's Medical Dictionary (28th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2006. ISBN 978-0-7817-3390-8.
- Dodds TJ (March 2017). "Prescribed Benzodiazepines and Suicide Risk: A Review of the Literature". The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders. 19 (2). doi:10.4088/PCC.16r02037. PMID 28257172.
- Bottino SM, Bottino CM, Regina CG, Correia AV, Ribeiro WS (March 2015). "Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review". Cadernos de Saude Publica. 31 (3): 463–75. doi:10.1590/0102-311x00036114. PMID 25859714.
- "Suicide rates rising across the U.S. | CDC Online Newsroom | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 11 April 2019. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
Relationship problems or loss, substance misuse; physical health problems; and job, money, legal or housing stress often contributed to risk for suicide.
- Preventing Suicide A Resource for Media Professionals (PDF). 2008. ISBN 978-92-4-159707-4.
- Sakinofsky I (June 2007). "The current evidence base for the clinical care of suicidal patients: strengths and weaknesses". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 52 (6 Suppl 1): 7S–20S. PMID 17824349.
Other suicide prevention strategies that have been considered are crisis centres and hotlines, method control, and media education... There is minimal research on these strategies. Even though crisis centres and hotlines are used by suicidal youth, information about their impact on suicidal behaviour is lacking.
- Zalsman G, Hawton K, Wasserman D, van Heeringen K, Arensman E, Sarchiapone M, et al. (July 2016). "Suicide prevention strategies revisited: 10-year systematic review". The Lancet. Psychiatry. 3 (7): 646–59. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30030-X. hdl:1854/LU-8509936. PMID 27289303.
Other approaches that need further investigation include gatekeeper training, education of physicians, and internet and helpline support.
- Yip PS, Caine E, Yousuf S, Chang SS, Wu KC, Chen YY (June 2012). "Means restriction for suicide prevention". Lancet. 379 (9834): 2393–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60521-2. PMC 6191653. PMID 22726520.
- Ajdacic-Gross V, Weiss MG, Ring M, Hepp U, Bopp M, Gutzwiller F, Rössler W (September 2008). "Methods of suicide: international suicide patterns derived from the WHO mortality database". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 86 (9): 726–32. doi:10.2471/BLT.07.043489. PMC 2649482. PMID 18797649.
- Wang H, Naghavi M, Allen C, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Carter A, et al. (GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators) (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.. For the number 828,000, see Table 5, line "Self-harm", second column (year 2015)
- Naghavi M, Wang H, Lozano R, Davis A, Liang X, Zhou M, et al. (GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators) (January 2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442.. For the number 712,000, see Table 2, line "Self-harm", first column (year 1990)
- "Suicide rates per (100 000 population)". World Health Organization.
- Bertolote JM, Fleischmann A (October 2002). "Suicide and psychiatric diagnosis: a worldwide perspective". World Psychiatry. 1 (3): 181–5. PMC 1489848. PMID 16946849.
- Chang B, Gitlin D, Patel R (September 2011). "The depressed patient and suicidal patient in the emergency department: evidence-based management and treatment strategies". Emergency Medicine Practice. 13 (9): 1–23, quiz 23–4. PMID 22164363.
- Tomer A (2013). Existential and Spiritual Issues in Death Attitudes. Psychology Press. p. 282. ISBN 978-1-136-67690-1.
- Ritzer G, Stepnisky J, eds. (2011). The Wiley-Blackwell companion to major social theorists. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-4443-9660-7.
- God, Religion, Science, Nature, Culture, and Morality. Archway Publishing. 2014. p. 254. ISBN 978-1-4808-1124-9.
- Colt, George Howe (1992). The enigma of suicide (1st Touchstone ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-671-76071-7.
- "Indian woman commits sati suicide". Bbc.co.uk. 2002-08-07. Archived from the original on 2011-02-02. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
- White T (2010). Working with suicidal individuals : a guide to providing understanding, assessment and support. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-84905-115-6.
- Lester D (2006). "Suicide and islam". Archives of Suicide Research. 10 (1): 77–97. doi:10.1080/13811110500318489. PMID 16287698. S2CID 35754641.
- Aggarwal N (2009). "Rethinking suicide bombing". Crisis. 30 (2): 94–7. doi:10.1027/0227-5910.30.2.94. PMID 19525169. S2CID 35560934.
- Noyes, Russell Jr (1968-05-01). "The Taboo of Suicide". Psychiatry. 31 (2): 173–183. doi:10.1080/00332747.1968.11023545. ISSN 0033-2747. PMID 27780435.
- Vaughan, Megan. "The 'discovery' of suicide in Africa". BBC. Retrieved 2020-06-16.
- "Suicide". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2020-06-16.