The Power of Empathic Storytelling: How to Make Your Customer the Hero of Your Story
Stand-up comedy is a comedic style in which a comedian performs in front of a live audience, speaking directly to them through a microphone. The performer is commonly known as a comic, stand-up comic, comedian, comedienne, stand-up comedian, or simply a stand-up. Comedians give the illusion that they are dialoguing, but in actuality, they are monologuing a grouping of humorous stories, jokes and one-liners, typically called a shtick, routine, act, or set. Some stand-up comedians use props, music or magic tricks to enhance their acts. Stand-up comedians perform quasi-autobiographical and fictionalized extensions of their offstage selves.
- Mintz, Lawrence E. (Spring 1985). "Special Issue: American Humor" (PDF). American Quarterly. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 37 (1): 71–72. doi:10.2307/2712763. JSTOR 2712763. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
A strict, limiting definition of standup comedy would describe an encounter between a single, standing performer behaving comically and/or saying funny things directly to an audience, unsupported by very much in the way of costume, prop, setting, or dramatic vehicle. Yet standup comedy's roots are ... entwined with rites, rituals, and dramatic experiences that are richer, more complex than this simple definition can embrace. We must ... include seated storytellers, comic characterizations that employ costume and prop, team acts[,] ... manifestations of standup comedy routines ... such as skits, improvisational situations, and films ... and television sitcoms ... however our definition should stress relative directness of artist/audience communication and the proportional importance of comic behavior and comic dialogue versus the development of plot and situation
- Shouse, Eric (2020). "Person, Persona, and Act: The Dark and Light Sides of George Carlin, Richard Pryor, and Robin Williams". In Oppliger, Patrice A.; Shouse, Eric (eds.). The Dark Side of Stand-up Comedy. United Kingdom: Springer Nature Switzerland AG: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 34. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-37214-9_2. ISBN 978-3-030-37213-2.
[The microphone allows] comedians to speak in a 'natural register' in a manner that closely resemble[s] everyday conversation ... As a result, stand-up comics can create the 'illusion of intimacy' with a large group of people ... The intimate tone and style of address are further amplified by a context in which 'theatrical stagecraft [is kept] to a bare minimum'
- Brodie, Ian (2008). "Stand-up Comedy as a Genre of Intimacy". Ethnologies. Cape Breton University. 30 (2): 156–157. doi:10.7202/019950ar. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
[S]tand-up comedy ... cannot exist without technological advances ... what distinguishes it as a whole from other forms of verbal comedy, and where one can deduce its origins, is the advanced use of the microphone ... antecedents and forebears are suggested ranging from the court jester to Mark Twain and Will Rogers. Such suggestions of ancestry are not without merits, but as a form or, more precisely, as an emic genre with an attendant set of expectations, including the dialogic properties ... stand-up comedy, contemporary or otherwise, does not exist without amplification.
- Fisher, J Tommy Cooper: Always Leave Them Laughing ISBN 978-0-00-721511-9
- Fallatah, Wafaa (2017). "Bilingual creativity in Saudi stand-up comedy". World Englishes. 36 (4): 670. doi:10.1111/weng.12239. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
By stand-up comedy, I refer to the special genre of comedy where an individual comedian uses his or her shared culture, historical background, social assumptions, and nuances of language to provide live entertainment through a monologue, consisting of jokes, anecdotes, and sketches intended to make an audience laugh (Stevenson 2010)
- Lindfors, Antti (6 May 2019). "Cultivating Participation and the Varieties of Reflexivity in Stand-Up Comedy". University of Turku, Finland. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology. 29 (3): 282–283. doi:10.1111/jola.12223. Retrieved 27 December 2020.
To begin with, indiscriminate in address and open to every (paying) customer, stand-up comedy can be regarded as closer to public rhetoric rather than actual dialogue (see also Peters 1999, chapter 1).
- Lintott, Sheila (2020). "Stand-Up Comedy and Mental Health: Critiquing the Troubled Stand-Up Stereotype". In Oppliger, Patrice A.; Shouse, Eric (eds.). The Dark Side of Stand-up Comedy. United Kingdom: Springer Nature Switzerland AG: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 215. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-37214-9_10. ISBN 978-3-030-37213-2.
it is inherent to the very nature of stand-up that they [stand-ups] convincingly perform as if they are simply being themselves and talking off the cuff
- Lee, Judith Yaross (2006). "Mark Twain as a Stand-up Comedian". The Mark Twain Annual. Penn State University Press. 4 (4): 5. JSTOR 41582220.
[S]tand-up is marked above all by face-to-face interaction that imitates a (mostly one-way) conversation.
- Seizer, Susan (2011). Stewart Huff. "On the Uses of Obscenity in Live Stand-Up Comedy". Anthropological Quarterly. The George Washington University Institute for Ethnographic Research. 84 (1): 213. doi:10.1353/anq.2011.0001. JSTOR 41237487. S2CID 144137009.
[S]tand-up is not so much public speech as it is talk. Though it may be 'heavily one-sided,' it is nevertheless a dialogic form 'that allows for reaction, participation, and engagement on the part of those to whom the stand-up comedian is speaking'
- Wayne Federman (9 July 2019). "S2 Ep. 06: Meltdown". The History of Standup (Podcast). Dana Gould. The Podglomerate. Event occurs at 21:40-21:54. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
A low ceiling and proximity to the stage is important because standup comedy is not a performance. It is a conversation in which the comedian does all of the talking.
- Morris, Andrea (26 July 2018). "A Robot Stand-Up Comedian Learns The Nuts And Bolts Of Comedy". Forbes. Forbes Media LLC. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
[A lot of] stand-up comedy ... as a general art form ... is pre-scripted
- Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 16. ISBN 0-671-62620-5.
Jerry Seinfeld explains: 'Comedy is a dialogue, not a monologue—that's what makes an act click. The laughter becomes the audience's part, and the comedian responds'
- Stewart Lee (3 July 2013). On Not Writing (Lecture) (YouTube). St Edmund Hall: University of Oxford. Event occurs at 48:54-48:58. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
On the whole, you have to give the illusion that it's a dialogue
- Dean, Greg (2000). Step by Step to Stand-up Comedy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. p. 190. ISBN 0-325-00179-0.
- Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 90. ISBN 0-671-62620-5.
A comic's material about his life may have some connection to reality, but basically an act is just that, an act—it's a fictionalized account with a few actual facts thrown in to make the act believable and, perhaps, more relevant to people's lives.
- Brodie, Ian (2014). "Stand-Up Comedy and a Folkloristic Approach". A Vulgar Art: A New Approach to Stand-up Comedy. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-62846-182-4.
[S]tand-up comedy is a dialogic form. No matter how one-sided the conversation between the performer and the audience might be, there is a required reciprocity between performer and audience.
- Martin, Steve (2007). Born Standing Up: A Comic's Life. New York: Scribner. pp. 40–42. ISBN 978-1-4165-5364-9.
I was demonstrating tricks eight to twelve hours a day
- Lee, Judith Yaross (2006). "Mark Twain as a Stand-up Comedian". The Mark Twain Annual. Penn State University Press. 4 (4): 4. JSTOR 41582220.
Stand-up comedians purport to speak autobiographically and in their own voice while engaging in apparently authentic, if not convincingly spontaneous, communication with the audience, and their punch lines typically cap extended anecdotes and observations instead of one-line jokes.
- Smith, Daniel R. (2018). "Part II: Synthetic[:] Representation: Stand-up: representing whom?". COMEDY AND CRITIQUE: Stand-up comedy and the professional Ethos of laughter. Bristol Shorts Research. UK: Bristol University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-5292-0015-7.
[S]tand-up comedians (often) appear 'as themselves' ... stand-up comedy is a form of theatre; it is not life ... stand-up is about the re-presentation of self as if it were everyday life
- Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Quote by Jerry Seinfeld. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 199. ISBN 1-879505-54-1.
That's the goal—to become yourself.
- Mendrinos, James (2004). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Writing Comedy. NY, New York: ALPHA: A member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. p. 12. ISBN 1-59257-231-6.
- Munro, David (2018). "The Art of the Joke". CRAFTSMANSHIP Quarterly: The Architecture of Excellence. The Craftsmanship Initiative. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- Evans, Bradford (7 August 2012). "Stand-Up Comedians and Their Alternate On-Stage Personas". Vulture: Devouring Culture. NEW YORK MEDIA LLC. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. pp. 90–91. ISBN 0-671-62620-5.
[A stand-up's] act [is a] fictionalized account with a few actual facts thrown in to make the act believable and, perhaps more relevant to people's lives ... Every stand-up goes onstage as a character to some extent. Some may adopt a persona that's very similar to their own personality, but it's still a separate entity ... even observational comics ... use truth ... as a foundation on which to build jokes by taking the truth to its farthest [sic] extreme.
- Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 262. ISBN 0-671-62620-5.
(loosely) autobiographical comedy is the dominant form of stand-up today.
- Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Gary Shandling. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 209. ISBN 1-879505-54-1.
I [Gary Shandling] think you can only be on stage what you are in real life.
- Katzif, Mike (16 November 2018). "Mo Amer: Working The Classroom Comedy Circuit". NPR. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
[I]f you're not real ... people will sniff that out.
- Wilde, Larry (2000) . "Johnny Carson". Great Comedians Talk About Comedy. Johnny Carson. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Executive Books. p. 168. ISBN 0-937539-51-1.
Larry Wilde: Charlie Chaplin in a Life magazine story said, 'You cannot be funny without an attitude. Being without an attitude in comedy is like something amiss in one's make-up.' What exactly is a comic attitude? ... [Johnny Carson:] Generally, it is your outlook on things. It is, in a way, an extension of your personality.