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Different Types of Medical Massage

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He was locked up for supporting Islamist terrorism before turning his life around

Algerian Civil War
Arrêt du processus électoral de 1991 en Algérie.jpg
Military deployed in the streets of Algiers, after the military coup against the Islamists, who took up arms later.
Date26 December 1991 – 8 February 2002[16]
(10 years, 1 month, 1 week and 6 days)
Location
Result

Government victory

Belligerents

 Government of Algeria

Supported by:
 Tunisia[2][3]
 European Union[4]
 France[3][4]
 Egypt[2][3]

 South Africa[5]

FIS loyalists

Supported by:
Libya Libya (until 1995)[3]
 Saudi Arabia (pre-war)[4]
 Morocco (alleged)[3][6]
 Iran (alleged)[4]

Saudi private donors[4]

GIA (from 1993)

Supported by:
 Sudan (alleged)[8][9][10]
 Iran (alleged)[8][9][10]
Finsbury Park Mosque[11][12]
Brandbergen Mosque[13][14]
EIJ (until 1995)[15]


GSPC (from 1998)
Supported by
Al-Qaeda[8]
Commanders and leaders
Algeria Mohamed Boudiaf 
Algeria Ali Kafi
Algeria Liamine Zéroual
Algeria Abdelaziz Bouteflika
Algeria Mohamed Lamari
(Chief of Staff)
Algeria Mohamed Mediène
(Head of DRS)
Abassi Madani (POW)
Ali Belhadj (POW)
Abdelkader Hachani (POW) 
Anwar Haddam
Abdelkader Chebouti
Madani Mezrag
Mustapha Kartali
Ali Benhadjar

Abdelhak Layada (POW)
Djafar al-Afghani 
Cherif Gousmi 
Djamel Zitouni 
Antar Zouabri 


Hassan Hattab
Strength
140,000 (1994)[19]
124,000 (in 2001)
100,000–300,000 local militia fighters[1]
2,000 (1992)
40,000 (1994)
10,000 (1996)[20]
Casualties and losses
~150,000 total deaths[21]

The Algerian Civil War was a civil war in Algeria fought between the Algerian government and various Islamist rebel groups from 26 December 1991 (following a coup negating an Islamist electoral victory) to 8 February 2002. The war began slowly as it first appeared the government had successfully crushed the Islamist movement, but armed groups emerged to fight jihad and by 1994, violence had reached such a level that it appeared the government might not be able to withstand it.[22] By 1996–97, it had become clear that the Islamist resistance had lost its popular support, although fighting continued for several years after.[22]

The war has been referred to as 'the dirty war' (la sale guerre),[23] and saw extreme violence and brutality used against civilians.[24][25] Islamists targeted journalists, over 70 of whom were killed, and foreigners, over 100 of whom were killed,[26] although it is thought by many that security forces as well as Islamists were involved, as the government had infiltrated the insurgents.[27] Children were widely used, particularly by the rebel groups.[28] Total fatalities have been estimated at 44,000[29] to between 100,000 and 200,000.[30]

The conflict began in December 1991, when the new and enormously popular Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) party appeared poised to defeat the ruling National Liberation Front (FLN) party in the national parliamentary elections. The elections were canceled after the first round and the military effectively took control of the government, forcing pro-reform president Chadli Bendjedid from office. After the FIS was banned and thousands of its members arrested, Islamist guerrillas rapidly emerged and began an armed campaign against the government and its supporters.

They formed themselves into various armed groups, principally the Islamic Armed Movement (MIA), based primarily in the mountains, and the more hard-line Armed Islamic Group (GIA), based primarily in the towns. The GIA motto was "no agreement, no truce, no dialogue" and it declared war on the FIS in 1994 after the latter had made progress in negotiations with the government. The MIA and various smaller insurgent bands regrouped, becoming the FIS-loyalist Islamic Salvation Army (AIS).

After talks collapsed, elections were held in 1995 and won by the army's candidate, General Liamine Zéroual. The GIA not only fought the AIS but both it and the government began a series of massacres targeting entire neighborhoods or villages which peaked in 1997. The massacre policy caused desertion and splits in the GIA, while the AIS, under attack from both sides, declared a unilateral ceasefire with the government in 1997. In the meantime, the 1997 parliamentary elections were won by a newly created pro-Army party supporting the president.

In 1999, following the election of Abdelaziz Bouteflika as president, violence declined as large numbers of insurgents "repented", taking advantage of a new amnesty law. The remnants of the GIA proper were hunted down over the next two years, and had practically disappeared by 2002, with the exception of a splinter group called the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC),[Note 1] which announced its support for Al-Qaeda in October 2003 and continued fighting an insurgency that would eventually spread to other countries in the region.[32][33]

  1. ^ a b Paul Collier; Nicholas Sambanis (2005). Understanding Civil War: Africa. World Bank Publications. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-8213-6047-7.
  2. ^ a b Rex Brynen; Bahgat Korany; Paul Noble (1995). Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World. 1. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 289. ISBN 978-1-55587-579-4.
  3. ^ a b c d e Sidaoui, Riadh (2009). "Islamic Politics and the Military: Algeria 1962–2008". In Jan-Erik Lane; Hamadi Redissi; Riyāḍ Ṣaydāwī (eds.). Religion and Politics: Islam and Muslim Civilization. Ashgate. pp. 241–243. ISBN 978-0-7546-7418-4.
  4. ^ a b c d e Karl DeRouen, Jr.; Uk Heo (2007). Civil Wars of the World: Major Conflicts Since World War II. ABC-CLIO. pp. 115–117. ISBN 978-1-85109-919-1.
  5. ^ Arms trade in practice, Hrw.org, October 2000
  6. ^ Yahia H. Zoubir; Haizam Amirah-Fernández (2008). North Africa: Politics, Region, and the Limits of Transformation. Routledge. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-134-08740-2.
  7. ^ Atkins, Stephen E. (2004). Encyclopedia of Modern Worldwide Extremists and Extremist Groups. Greenwood. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-313-32485-7.
  8. ^ a b c Mannes, Aaron (2004). Profiles in Terror: The Guide to Middle East Terrorist Organizations. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7425-3525-1.
  9. ^ a b Cordesman, Anthony H. (2002). A Tragedy of Arms: Military and Security Developments in the Maghreb. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-275-96936-3.
  10. ^ a b Brosché, Johan; Höglund, Kristine (2015). "The diversity of peace and war in Africa". Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Oxford University Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-19-873781-0.
  11. ^ Lyubov Grigorova Mincheva; Lyubov Grigorova; Ted Robert Gurr (2013). Crime-terror Alliances and the State: Ethnonationalist and Islamist Challenges to Regional Security. Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-415-50648-9.
  12. ^ Kepel, Gilles (2006). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. I.B.Tauris. pp. 263–273. ISBN 978-1-84511-257-8.
  13. ^ Siegel, Pascale Combelles (7 November 2008). "Coalition Attack Brings an End to the Career of al-Qaeda in Iraq's Second-in-Command". Terrorism Monitor. 6 (21).
  14. ^ Petersson, Claes (13 July 2005). "Terrorbas i Sverige". Aftonbladet (in Swedish).
  15. ^ Tabarani, Gabriel G. (2011). Jihad's New Heartlands: Why The West Has Failed To Contain Islamic Fundamentalism. AuthorHouse. p. 329. ISBN 978-1-4678-9180-6.
  16. ^ Boot, Max (2013). "Appendix". Invisible Armies.
  17. ^ Harmon, Stephen A. (2014). Terror and Insurgency in the Sahara-Sahel Region: Corruption, Contraband, Jihad and the Mali War of 2012–2013. Ashgate. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-4094-5475-5.
  18. ^ "A hostage crisis haunted by the ghosts of Algeria's bloody past". The Washington Post.
  19. ^ Martinez, Algerian Civil War, 1998: p.162
  20. ^ Martinez, Algerian Civil War, 1998: p.215
  21. ^ Hagelstein, Roman (2007). "Where and When does Violence Pay Off? The Algerian Civil War" (PDF). HICN. Households in Conflict Network: 24. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  22. ^ a b Kepel, Jihad, 2002: p.255
  23. ^ Prince, Rob (16 October 2012). "Algerians Shed Few Tears for Deceased President Chadli Bendjedid". Foreign Policy in Focus. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  24. ^ Cavatorta, Francesco (2008). "Alternative Lessons from the 'Algerian Scenario'". Perspectives on Terrorism. 2 (1). Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  25. ^ Kepel, Jihad, 2002: p.254
  26. ^ Whitney, Craig R. (24 May 1996). "7 French Monks Reported Killed By Islamic Militants in Algeria". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  27. ^ Entre menace, censure et liberté: La presse privé algérienne se bat pour survivre, 31 March 1998
  28. ^ Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers (2001). "Global Report on Child Soldiers". child-soldiers.org. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  29. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2008Study was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  30. ^ Ajami, Fouad (27 January 2010). "The Furrows of Algeria". New Republic. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  31. ^ Hugh Roberts, The Battlefield Algeria, 1988–2002: Studies in a Broken Polity, Verso: London 2003, p. 269
  32. ^ Whitlock, Craig (5 October 2006). "Al-Qaeda's Far-Reaching New Partner". The Washington Post: A01.
  33. ^ Algerian group backs al-Qaeda. BBC News. 23 October 2003. Retrieved 7 November 2008.


Cite error: There are <ref group=Note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=Note}} template (see the help page).

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