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Global Whey Protein Powder Sector 2020 Top Manufac

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Meet 2 Female Founders Aiming To Close The Gender Pay Gap, 80% Of Which Can Be Attributed To The ‘Motherhood Penalty’

Girl Reciting the Qurān (Kuran Okuyan Kız), an 1880 painting by the Ottoman polymath Osman Hamdi Bey, whose works often showed women engaged in educational activities.[1]

The experiences of Muslim women (Arabic: مسلماتMuslimāt, singular مسلمة Muslimah) vary widely between and within different societies.[2] At the same time, their adherence to Islam is a shared factor that affects their lives to a varying degree and gives them a common identity that may serve to bridge the wide cultural, social, and economic differences between them.[2]

Among the influences which have played an important role in defining the social, spiritual, and cosmological status of women in the course of Islamic history are Islam's sacred text, the Quran; the Ḥadīths, which are traditions relating to the deeds and aphorisms of Islam's Prophet Muḥammad;[3] ijmā', which is a consensus, expressed or tacit, on a question of law;[4] qiyās, the principle by which the laws of the Quran and the Sunnah or Prophetic custom are applied to situations not explicitly covered by these two sources of legislation;[5] and fatwas, non-binding published opinions or decisions regarding religious doctrine or points of law. Additional influences include pre-Islamic cultural traditions; secular laws, which are fully accepted in Islam so long as they do not directly contradict Islamic precepts;[6] religious authorities, including government-controlled agencies such as the Indonesian Ulema Council and Turkey's Diyanet;[7] and spiritual teachers, which are particularly prominent in Islamic mysticism or Sufism. Many of the latter, including Ibn al-'Arabī, have themselves produced texts that have elucidated the metaphysical symbolism of the feminine principle in Islam.[8]

There is considerable variation as to how the above sources are interpreted by Orthodox Muslims, both Sunni and Shi'a – approximately 90% of the world's Muslim population – and ideological fundamentalists, most notably those subscribing to Wahhabism or Salafism, who comprise roughly 9% of the total.[9] In particular, Wahhabis and Salafists tend to reject mysticism and theology outright; this has profound implications for the way that women are perceived within these ideological sects.[10] Conversely, within Islamic Orthodoxy, both the established theological schools and Sufism are at least somewhat influential.[11]

  1. ^ "Artist Feature: Who Was Osman Hamdi Bey?". How To Talk About Art History. April 27, 2017. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  2. ^ a b Herbert L. Bodman; Nayereh Esfahlani Tohidi, eds. (1998). Women in Muslim Societies: Diversity Within Unity. Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 2–3. ISBN 978-1-55587-578-7.
  3. ^ iGlassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. pp. 141–143.
  4. ^ Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. p. 182.
  5. ^ Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. p. 325.
  6. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2004). The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity. New York: HarperOne. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-0-06-073064-2.
  7. ^ Schleifer, Yigal (April 27, 2005). "In Turkey, Muslim women gain expanded religious authority". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
  8. ^ Murata, Sachiko (1992). The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 188–202. ISBN 978-0-7914-0914-5.
  9. ^ Schleifer, Professor S Abdallah (2015). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims, 2016. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-4679-9976-2.
  10. ^ Oliveti, Vicenzo (2002). Terror's Source: The Ideology of Wahhabi-Salafism and its Consequences. Birmingham, United Kingdom: Amadeus Books. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-0-9543729-0-3.
  11. ^ Schleifer, Prof S Abdallah (2015). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims, 2016. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. pp. 28–30. ISBN 978-1-4679-9976-2.
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